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Checheno-Ingushetia in the Soviet Union (USSR)

Last modified: 2021-07-24 by valentin poposki
Keywords: checheno-ingush assr |
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7 See also:

Presentation

In 1940, a rebellion broke out in the Chechno-Ingushetian Republic and established contacts with the advancing German army. For that, Chechens and Ingush were subjected to mass deportations starting in 1944.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Feb 2000

A book SSSR — Administrativno-territorialhnoe Delenie Soûznyq Respublik, of 1980, lists the following chronology for Chechnya and Ingushetia:

  • 1922.11.30 Chechen autonomous region (AO) founded
  • 1924.06.07 Ingush autonomous region (AO) founded
  • 1934.01.15 both merged into Chechen-Ingush autonomous region (AO)
  • 1936.12.15 upgraded to Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Sov. Soc. Rep. (ASSR)
And nothing more, no word about the 1944-1956 dissolution (the similar situation in Kabard-Balkar ASSR in 1945-1954 is also ignored in this book). From 1944 to 1957 the territory and the remaining, undeported population was administered as “normal” (not autonomous) part of R.S.F.S.R.. It should be noted that Chechnya and Ingushetia were thus administered together from 1934 to 1992.
António Martins, 26 Jun 1999

Both Chechen and Ingush peoples were deported at the same time (February 1944). Chechen-Ingush ASSR was then suppressed, even part of its territory was ceded to Georgia. In 1957 Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored (along with Kalmyk ASSR, Kabardino-Balkar ASSR and Karachai AR). Flags attributed to these entities between 1944 and 1957 are, certainly, due to an error.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 29 Jun 1999

According to Theodore Shabad’s Geography of the USSR (New York, 1951) pp. 228-230:

Groznyy Oblast was formed in 1944 on the site of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous SSR and includes the territory of the former Kizlyar Okrug, which was originally part of the Dagestan Autonomous SSR and from 1938 until 1944 in Ordzhonikidze Kray…

The territory of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous SSR was distributed in 1944; the southern mountain strip passed to the Georgian SSR, the westernmost section to the North Ossetian Autonomous SSR, an eastern zone to the Dagestan Autonomous SSR, while the bulk of the territory made up part of the newly constituted Groznyy Oblast.

Jarig Bakker, 27 Jun 1999

This "newly constituted Groznyy Oblast" is just the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR under a new name (and “downgraded” to the non-ethnic category of oblasth). The key phrase here is "the bulk of the territory", all the rest are probably minor borderline rearrangements, and not a "dismembering" of this unit (although I’m surprised that territory was interchanged from one SSR to another). (Naturally, my 1980 Soviet handbook about territorial divisions ignores all this.)
António Martins, 29 Jun 1999


22 June 1937 – 1938

err. chech. flag? image by Janis Lasmanis, 20 April 2021

Russian script introduced in 1938. Vexillographia.ru says (in text) that Russian was the 1st. Also the constitution of ASSR of 1937 said that Russian was the 1st. place. It seems that after 1937 it was required for all ASSRs that Russian text is above.
Text of 1937 constitution - http://kavkaznasledie.ru/archives/263
Ben Cahoon, 1 April 2021

May be the flag of 1937 without hammer and sickle also existed. I think so. But nobody saw it in reality.
Probably the 1937 flag had the inscriptions in 3 languages, not in 3 lines but in 2 because postage stamps of that period had the name of the republic in 2 lines: Russian and generic Chechenian/Ingushetian lang.
For example - post stamp 1960 - https://stamps.ru/sites/default/files/checheno-ingush_0.png

All we know about Soviet flag of Dagestan: 11 languages according the Constitution, but only one abbreviation "DASSP" in fact. I think the Chech.-Ing. Flag of 1937 (1938) was made according that model too.
Victor Lomantsov, 6 April 2021

The Chechen text was not Noxč-Ghalghajn. Please see Chechen newspaper of 1926 with “Noxč” (not Nohč) [see Chechen newspaper image].
Janis Lasmanis, 20 April 2021


1938 — 7 March 1944

err. chech. flag? image by Janis Lasmanis, 1 April 2021

Janis' best guess on the basis of text of the ASSR constitution of 1937.
Ben Cahoon, 1 April 2021

I understand that Mr. Lomantsov accepts this at least as possible flag. The postal stamp dates from 1960 and even though there is just Chechen on the lower part of stamp, the arms on the same stamp have 3 languages.
Janis Lasmanis, 20 April 2021


16 April 1958 — 26 May 1978

err. chech. flag? image by Janis Lasmanis, 1 April 2021

The Russian text is in the 1st position. Vexillographia.ru says (in text) that Russian was the 1st. (He was wondering why some drawings on Vexillographia differ from the quoted text of constitutions.)
Ben Cahoon, 1 April 2021

The flag of Checheno-Ingush ASSR 1957 is well known according images in Flag-Albums, postcards etc. The Russian abbreviation is always placed in the second row.

The constitution said there are inscriptions in Russian, Chechenian and Ingushian languages, but nothing about the order of the inscriptions.
For example:
https://filinfo.ru/images/photo/18552_1454671278_0_p.jpg
https://hobby-group.ru/sites/default/files/IMG_20200609_0051-min.jpg
https://b.itemimg.com/i/206668816.2.jpg
Victor Lomantsov, 6 April 2021

Concerning the dates, the Republic was re-founded in 1957 and the Constitution of 1937 was revived with the old flag of 1937.

Changes to the article 112 (about symbols) of the Constitution were made on 16 April 1958 (at the 1st session of new-formed Supreme Council). On May 21, 1958 the Regulation about the new flag was adopted.
Correct date of the adoption - 16 April 1958.
Victor Lomantsov, 6 April 2021

For the flag in 1957 – I would rather keep 1957-58 blank, because even though the constitution of 1937 was restored, I doubt that old flag (not in line with new flag of RSFSR) could be used. The suggestion that they used the RSFSR flag of that time might be correct, even if the constitution specified the older ASSR flag. It would be nice to know. It is unfortunate there are no details.
Janis Lasmanis, 20 April 2021


26 January 1978 - 1 November 1991

err. chech. flag? image by Janis Lasmanis, 1 April 2021

This was the last flag of the ASSR.
Ben Cahoon, 1 April 2021


 
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