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United States of Colombia (1861-1886)

Estados Unidos de Colombia

Last modified: 2014-05-16 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: colombia | antioquia | bolivar | boyaca | cauca | cundinmarca | magdalena | panama | santander | tolima |
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by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001



See Also:


Overview

On 20 September 1861, the name of the country was changed. All the flags of the Republic of New Granada and Grenadine Confederation, even United States of New Grenada were abolished on 26 November 1861. On that date, an executive decree established new national flag and merchant flag . Arms were retained with minor changes.
During this era, ther were about 40 regional civil wars, and one national civil war (1876-1877) when conservatives revolted but at the end negotations finished the conflict.
In 1884, the radical-liberals revolted arguing that president Nunez tried to limit the power of the states. Nunez and some liberals allied with the conservatives and the National party was created 1885. This party won the war and in 1886 proclaimed a new constitution of centralist character that abolished the United States and created the Republic of Colombia.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


National Flag

Currently in use. Ratio 2:3. Adopted: 26 November 1861. After 1906 the navy can use the national flag as naval ensign.
Jaume Ollé, 20 December 1996


Civil Ensign


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Ratio 2:3. Adopted: 26 November 1861. Abolished: 28 April 1890. The Decree states: "stars of seven points".
Jaume Ollé, 20 December 1996

Merchant flag was fixed in 2:3 (as the national one) with a blue oval with stars (decree says sevenpointed argent stars) an the number of states in the union. Red border must be 5 cms. and flag 1 m. high (1/8 of the hight of the blue oval, that is 1/5 of flag's hight). Since the size of the flag was variable, several interpretations and patterns existed.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Variant with eight points stars


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

The decree stated that stars must be sevenpointed, but tradition in Colombia was that the stars are eighpointed. This imply that the flag must be issued frequently witg eighpointes stars (maybe the number 7 in decree is a mistake).
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Variant with five points stars


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

And also the flag was frequently used with five points stars.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Variant with six points stars (?)


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Philippe draw the flag with six pointed stars but this variant was rejected by Restrepo.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Flags according to Flagmaster


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Flagmaster published a suposed variant of this flag. I doubt weather this flag is correctly attribued, and I speculate that Philippe took his six pointes stars flags from this one. I believe that this flag is older, before 1830 or so. Here are reproduced but with differents variotions of points in stars.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


Naval Ensign


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Ratio 2:3. Adopted: 26 November 1861 . Abolished: 5 November 1889.
Jaume Ollé, 20 December 1996

In the same decree, the naval ensign was established (Pabellon de guerra), in proportion 2:3, with national arms. The size of the arms is quoted but in absolute size instead relative and it is not known exactly how it was. Restrepo say that the ensigns were manufactured with arms in same size (or very very close) to the cavalry standart.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


Army Flag


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Ratio ~4:5. Adopted: 26 November 1861. Abolished: 5 November 1889.
Jaume Ollé, 20 December 1996

Infantry and artilley corps used the national flag in proportion of 154:180 with arms in the center. Dimensions of the arms are quoted, but wasn't respected.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


Cavalry Standard


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Ratio 1:1. Adopted: 26 November 1861. Abolished: 5 November 1889.
Jaume Ollé, 20 December 1996

Cavalry standart was the national colours in 1:1 with arms. Shield was 40 cms (in the central oval diameter) in a flag of 1 meter (making it 2/5).
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


1861 commemorative flag

There's a Colombian commemorative flag displayed in the Ministry of Culture of Colombia as well as the National Museum of Colombia.
The flag is labeled as Bandera de los Estados Unidos de Colombia, dedicada a los Libertadores del Cauca (United States of Colombia) flag dedicated to the Liberators of Cauca and dates 1861 according to the National Museum. The dimensions of the flag are 255 x 155 cm.
On the top red fringe it reads in golden letters "Recompensa al valor" (Reward to valor). On the middle blue stripe it has on the left a golden laurel wreath and it reads LOS LIBERTADORES DEL CAUCA, (The Liberators of Cauca) in bold golden letters. On the middle it has the coat of arms. And on the right it features some sort of pictorical image of a human figurine holding flags, as a coat of arms. My guess was that it could be the coat of arms of Cauca, but it isn't. Of special interest is the coat of arms displayed in the middle, which should be the country's coat of arms. Since the date of the flag is 1861, it should have the coat of arms of the United States of Colombia, but it does not feature that coat of arms; instead it shows the coat of arms of the Greandine Confederation, which is the same coat of arms of the Republic of New Granada.
In fact, the commemorative flag is very similar to this flag. The flag is dedicated to the Estado Soberano de Cauca (Sovereign State of Cauca), which was the biggest and richest State of the country back then and was the main land from where General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera led a military campaign declaring himself "Supremo Director de la Guerra" (Supreme Dictator of War) and Presidente Provisorio de los Estados Unidos de la Nueva Granada (Provisional President of the United States of New Granada, as the insurrectional territorires were known, which where the Gobernación del Cauca (Government of Cauca) which at the time encompased the following present-day Departments of Chocó, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Nariño, Putumayo, Caquetá, Guaviare, Guainía, Vaupés and Amazonas, and together with the Gobernación de Bolívar (Government of Bolivar) which at the time encompased the following present-day Departments of Bolívar, Atlántico, SucreCórdoba and Santander, formed an alliance called Estados Unidos de la Nueva Granada (United States of the New Granada), to fight the legitimate government of the Confederación Granadina (1858-1863) (Grenadine Confederation).
Sources:
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estado_Soberano_del_Cauca
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerra_Civil_de_1860_-_1862

This leads us also to conclude that during the period between 1858-1863, Colombia was called Grenadine Confederation, and during the period 1863-1886 was called United States of Colombia. So an ammendment needs to be made regarding the span of time for Grenadine Confederation which is 1858-1863 and not 1858-1861 as currently depicted, and for the United States of Colombia, which is 1863-1886, and not 1861-1886 as currently depicted.
Esteban Rivera, 24 April  2010


Coat of Arms


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


States Flags

The member States used the national flag with arms (except Bolivar that used own flag) with some changes in relation to previous designs. Its is not sure if all states used this pattern because two or three states adopted their own arms (Antioquia and Tolima and perhaps Cundinamarca). I took the pattern from drawings by Philippe, but they were made according to Restrepo is in general lines. Several post stamps emisions show this arms pattern for several states.
Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Antioquia


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Bolivar


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Boyaca


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Cauca


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Cundinmarca


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Magdalena


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Panama


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Santander


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001

Tolima


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001


by Jaume Ollé, 27 October 2001



 
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