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Political Parties and Associations (Malaysia)

Last modified: 2023-06-03 by zachary harden
Keywords: malaysia | politics | hakka | handshake | arrow | rocket | circle (blue) | torch | disc (black) | star: 14 points (yellow) | triangle (green) | paddy | bull: gaur (black) | cogwheel (white) | ellipse (white) | disc (white) | disc (b |
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See also:

Akar Bersatu

[Akar Bersatu party (Malaysia)] image by António Martins

Bigger version of the symbol at the same page. From Akar Bersatu Official Website:

The flag of the party shall be a rectangular shape partitioned vertically in three segments. The left portion shall be red in colour to signify courage, strength and life. The middle portion shall be golden yellow to signify dignity, productivity, progress and prosperity for the State of Sabah. The right portion shall be blue to signify harmony, purity, peacefulness and stability of the Country. The width of each colour stripe is expended progressively to denote growth. The golden yellow is double the width of the blue and like wise, the red is double that of the golden yellow colour. The symbol and badge of the Party shall be printed on the upper half of the left (red) segment of the flag with the Party's acronym "AKAR BERSATU" imprinted in white immediately beneath the symbol.

Dov Gutterman, 19 March 1999

Barisan Nasional

[Barisan Nasional Party (Malaysia)] image by Jorge Candeias, 30 June 2005

Barisan Nasional (BN) - The National Front coalition (United Malays National Organisation-UMNO + 13 Other Political Parties). Their flag is blue with a white scale, as can be seen at:
Herman Felani M.Y., 22 March 2004

Democratic Action Party

Parti Tindakan Demokratik

[Democratic Action Party (Malaysia)] image by Jorge Candeias, 4 August 2005

based on the Democratic Action Party website

DAP is using a banner of a rocket on white. It is really in use [as could be seen at a now broken link]. And from Democratic Action Party website:

The meaning of the rocket
The blue circle stands for the unity of the multi-racial people of Malaysia. The white background stands for purity and incorruptibility. The red rocket symbolizes the Party's aspiration for a modern, dynamic and progressive society. The four rocket boosters represent the support and drive given to the Party objectives by the three major races and others.

Dov Gutterman, 19 March 1999

The blue circle also comes from the PAP (Singapore) logo, from whom the DAP is descended, which has a lightning bolt instead of the rocket. The two parties split in 1965 when Singapore left Malaysia.
Andrew Yong
, 20 March 1999

The party does have a flag as well, as seen here (first flag from left to right, source: and it is the party's logo in the middle of a horizontal white flag. The logo is explained here:

The party was established on October 11, 1965 after a split from the PAP as mentioned by Andrew Yong, on March 20, 1999.
Sources: and

For additional information go to DAP (official website):
Esteban Rivera, 23 August 2015

The DAP's nickname is the "rocket" party.
Clay Moss, 23 August 2015

Liberal Democratic Party

[Liberal Democratic Party (Malaysia)] image by António Martins

Source: Barisan Nasional Malaysia Official Website [broken link].

Malaysian Chinese Association

[Malaysian Chinese Association (Malaysia)] image by Ian MacDonald, 14 April 2007

From the Malaysian Chinese Association website: "The flag of the Party is a fourteen point yellow star on a blue background". There are also pictures of actual flags there. The MCA's political ideology and conception are prescribed in its Party Constitution. They are, in brief:

  • to safeguard democracy and freedom
  • to strive for equal status for all races in the country
  • to uphold social justice
  • to promote racial harmony and national unity
  • to promote national economic and social development
  • to safeguard the legitimate rights of the Chinese community

Dov Gutterman, 18 March 1999

Obviously based on the Kuomintang flag.
Andrew Yong
, 18 March 1999

"The Star", 12 March 2007 gives more details on the origin of the flag:

"Yesterday was a big day for MCA life member Mok Yuen – not only was it his first time attending the party's anniversary celebration, it was also the day his contribution to the party was “celebrated.” The 84-year-old, who travelled from Penang to attend the event, is the designer of MCA's flag. He carried the flag into Dewan San Choon at Wisma MCA here at the start of the party's 58th anniversary celebration. “I designed the flag in 1958 when the Penang MCA Youth realised there was nothing that represented the party then,” he said.

Mok drew two versions of the flag before presenting them to the party's headquarters. One version was a yellow chrysanthemum on a blue background while another was a nine-point yellow star on a blue background. The second version was later approved. “Initially, there were only nine points in the yellow star as it represented the Federation of Malaya but this was changed to 14 points in 1963 to represent the 13 component states and the Federal Government,” he said. Mok said the blue background symbolises brightness and unity while the use of yellow for the star represented the Chinese community. “Many people asked me if I was paid to design the flag when they found out that I was the designer, and my answer was no. “I did it simply because it was what the party needed at the time. I didn't do it for my own interest or to make myself famous,” he said. He added: “I am happy that I have contributed to the party in this way.”"
Ivan Sache, 21 March 2007

9-pointed star version

[Malaysian Chinese Association (Malaysia)] image by Ian MacDonald, 14 April 2007

Malaysian Indian Congress

[Malaysian Indian Congress] image by Ivan Sache, 6 January 2005

The Malaysian Indian Congress (then Malayan Indian Congress and probably until the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963) was founded in August 1946 by John A. Thivy, first President of the party (1946-1947). It was established in the course of the continuing struggle of the inter-war tears, to end British Colonial rule, as well as in the need for representation on behalf of Indian Community in the post war development of the country. It was the intense anti-British sentiment that made the MIC under the leadership of its second President Mr. Budh Singh (1947-1950) critical of the Malayan Union proposals that did not rally Indian support although the proposals were favourable and upheld the principle of jus soli. Later the MIC joined the All Malaya Council for Joint Action (AMCJA) under Tun Tan Cheng Lok in opposition to the less liberal Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948.

The second phase of the Party began, under its third President Mr. K.Ramanathan (1950-1951), realising the ineffectiveness and futility of non-cooperation with the Government when the other major communities represented by UMNO (United Malays' National Orgnization) and MCA (Malayan Chinese Association, later Malaysian Chinese Association) cooperated, the MIC contested in 1952 Kuala Lumpur Municipal Elections in alliance with the IMP (?) under Dato' Onn bin Jaafar and other non-communal organizations. In 1954 the MIC under its fourth President Mr. K. L. Devaser (1951-1955) became the third partner in the Alliance with UMNO and MCA.

The third phase of the MIC history was its consolidation. Under Tun V.T Sambanthan, the fifth President (1955-1973), the party grew in membership as well as in the number of branches, becoming a mass based party, and the same time firmly entrenching the MIC as a partner of Alliance. On 31 August 1957, independence of Malaysia was achieved under the Merdeka Agreement in which Tun V.T. Sambanthan was a signatory.

The fourth phase of the party began with Tan Sri Dato V. Manikavasagam, the sixth President (1973-1979). It was during this period that the MIC as a member of the Alliance became part of Barisan Nasional (BN). BN (National Front), including 10 parties, succeeded the Alliance in 1974. MIC sponsored the Nesa Multipurpose Cooperative and the MIC Unit Trust as part of its programme for economic ventures, and also set up the MIC Education Fund for members children and the Malaysian Indian Scholarship for higher education as well as acquiring an Institute for training Indians in technical and trade skills. With the demise of Tan Sri Dato V. Manikavasagam on 12 October 1979., Dato Seri S. Samy Vellu has taken over the helm of the Party.

In the 2004 parliamentary elections, the BN-MIC won nine seats (4 in Selangor, 2 in Perak and 1 in Johor, Pahang and Negeir Sembilan). The party is represented in the central government by the Minister of Works, three Deputy Ministers, and three Parliament Secretaries. In 1996, Indians represented 7.2% of the population of Malaysia.

The flag of the Malaysian Indian Congress is made of 16 horizontal stripes: the seven red and seven white stripes from the Malaysian national flag and a blue stripe on top and bottom of the flag. Those blue stripes symbolize peace and prosperity. A green circle placed in the center of the flag symbolizes unity; the acronyms Ma Yi Kah (மஇகா, Tamil) and MIC (Bahasa Malaysia) are written in green inside the circle.

Source (text and image): MIC website

Ivan Sache, 6 January 2005

Malaysian People's Movement Party

Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia

[Malaysian People's Movement Party (Malaysia)] image by António Martins

The flag of Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia is its logo on red. From the Malaysian People's Movement Party website [broken link]:

Party Symbol: Five paddy stalks represent 5 communities. They are the Malays, Chinese, Indians, the Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) and others. They are united by common bond. All communities value rice. It is the unifying symbol. 12 grains of paddy in each stalk represent 12 months of prosperity, harmony, justice and purity for all. Total 60 grains of paddy represent the Election cycles, one term of office to ensure the above.

Dov Gutterman, 19 March 1999

Malaysian Peoples' Party

Parti Rakyat Malaysia / PRM

[Malaysian People's Party (Malaysia)] image from the Malaysian People's Party website

Editor's note: the cogwheel in this image has only 12 teeth, the picture below appears to be more correct with 13.

Translated from the Malay in this website:

The flag is rectangle with the stylised black silhouette of the head of a Malayan Gaur (an indigenous bovine — seladang in Malay) on a white cogwheel against a dark red background. The symbolism of the flag:
  • The symbol of the Gaur means bravery, mutual help and protection of the weak (characteristics of the species).
  • The cogwheel with the thirteen teeth means industrial advancement and a united people under the Federation of the 13 states in Malaysia.
  • Red symbolises bravery, black for tenacity and white for purity.

Robert Kee, 15 August 1999

[Picture of Malaysian Peoples' Party Flag (Malaysia)]

I found this photo and caption [in Yahoo! News 23 November 1999] which shows the flag of a Malay political party:

A supporter of opposition Malaysian People's Party (PRM) holds a party flag on a street during a campaign Tuesday, Nov. 23, 1999 in Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysians will vote in the country's most crucial general elections in the decades on Nov. 29. Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's National Front has ruled the nation since its independence in 1957. (AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko)

Steve Stringfellow, 24 November 1999

Interestingly, this black bull on red was also used in Indonesia, by the Sukarnoputri party, if I remember correctly. Is there a connection?
Jorge Candeias
, 24 November 1999

Regarding the possible connection between the bull symbolism in the Malaysian Peoples' Party (Malay language acronym PRM) logo/flag with Indonesia's Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P)'s logo/flag, PRM sees its political struggle as having its roots from the pan-Malay progressive nationalist struggle spearheaded by the Malay Nationalist Party and its predecessors in the 30's and 40's. Incidentally the flag used by the Malay Nationalist Party is similar to the current flag of Indonesia. This is probably due to the historical significance of the Majapahit Empire which united the Malay archipelago in the 13th - 14th centuries.

When PRM was founded in 1955 (as Partai Ra'ayat or Peoples' Party), it had fraternal organisations in Indonesia (Independent Malaya Union), Singapore and Brunei. The original flag for PRM was the black gaur superimposed in the middle of the Malay Nationalist banner (read the present Indonesian flag). This is probably also why UMNO, which originated as a federation of conservative Malay political organisations; still maintains the incorporation of same banner in its present day logo. The banner was eventually discarded from PRM's logo when the separate independence of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei became de facto with the conclusion of the Indonesian-Malaysian confrontation and the federation of Malaya, Singapore and British Borneo as Malaysia. The Bruneian counterpart of PRM has since been effectively rendered impotent with the conclusion of the Brunei Revolt. It probably was also symbolic to PRM as it started reorganising itself as a multi ethnic national party in Malaysia.

PDI-P being a nationalist party in Indonesia probably derives its political struggle from the same pan Malay nationalist heritage, which is why PDI-P and a few other Indonesian political parties continue to use the black gaur on a red background as their symbols.
Robert Kee, 5 February 2001

See also:

Malaysian Trade Union Congress

[Malaysian Trade Unions Congress] image located by Ivan Sache, 6 January 2006

The Malaysian Trade Union Congress (MTUC - Kongres Kesatuan Sekerja Malaysia) is a federation of trade unions, registered under the Societies Act, 1955. It is the oldest National Centre representing the Malaysian workers. The Unions affiliated to MTUC represent all major industries and sectors with approximately 500,000 members. MTUC came into existence at a time when the First Emergency was declared against insurgent Communist activities. A few union leaders who believed in free democratic trade unionism convened a conference of trade union delegates on 27 and 28 February, 1949. MTUC has been recognized by the Government as the representative of workers in Malaysia and is consulted by Government on major changes in labour laws through the National Joint Labour Advisory Council. MTUC also represents labour at the International Labour Organisation Conferences and Meetings.

The emblem and the flag of MTUC are described in its Constitution as follows:

Rule 2 - Badge and Flag
2(1) The MTUC emblem shall be a round badge in a wheel form in blue colour, showing an aflamed torch with white background and superimposed on it the words MTUC. The badge shall further have the words "Kongres Kesatuan Sekerja Malaysia" and "Unity is Strength" around the green circle within it, on which shall appear two hands shaking and the words "MTUC", in Chinese and Tamil languages above and beneath them. A drawing of two rice stalks in golden colour shall appear around the green circle within the badge above the words.

2(2) The MTUC flag shall be in a rectangular form with diagonally divided red and white background and with the MTUC badge superimposed on it in the top left corner on the white side of the flag. A drawing of the badge and the flag appears as Appendix 'B' of MTUC Constitution.

Unfortunately, I have not found Appendix B but only a small, incomplete image of the MTUC badge, from which an experienced artist could be able to reconstruct the MTUC flag.

Source (text and image): MTUC website

Ivan Sache, 6 January 2005

National Justice Party

Parti Keadilan Nasional

[Parti Keadilan Nasional (Malaysia)] image by António Martins

Translated from Malay in the Parti Keadilan Nasional Official Website:

The flag shall be a sky blue rectangle. In the middle is a white sphere with a sky blue circle within. The white sphere represents the global nature of a noble struggle. The sky blue circle represents justice for all.

Robert L.S. Kee, 15 August 1999

See also:

Pan Malaysian Islamic Party

Parti Islam SeMalaysia

[Pan Malaysian Islamic Party (Malaysia)] 2:3 image by Ivan Sache

The correct name for the party in English is Pan Malaysian Islamic Party. The flag is a rectangle with a white circle [and] around a green background.
Robert L.S. Kee
, 15 August 1999

The PAS flag is green with a white full moon, roughly 2:3.
Andrew Yong, 15 January 2000

The Parti Islam SeMalaysia (PAS) – The Pan Malaysian Islamic Party. Their logo and flag is simply green charged with a white circle (representing the moon). As can be seen at:
Herman Felani M.Y., 22 March 2004

[Pan Malaysian Islamic Party (Malaysia) possible flag] image by Ivan Sache, 3 December 2008

A graphic shown on the party website shows a flag horizontally divided red-white with a green disk in canton. The same graphic is shown on the adhesion bulletin: However, a photo shown on the top of another website of the party shows the green flag with the white disk:
Ivan Sache, 3 December 2008

Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu

[Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu] image from the Barisan Nasional Malaysia Official Website

People's Progressive Party

[People's Progressive Party (Malaysia)] image by Thanh-Tâm Lê (conjectural ratio, see original image from the PPP website here)

From the People's Progressive Party website: "Six-pointed Blue Colour Star, representing 6 different communities and the major principles of the Party, i.e. People, Progress, Purpose, Protect, Principle and Peace."
Dov Gutterman
, 17 March 1999

Federation of Hakka Association in Malaysia

[Federation of Hakka Association in Malaysia] image from the Federation of Hakka Association in Malaysia website

According to the Danish encyclopedia: Hakka (cantonese 'stranger', standard chinese /keija/) term for approx. 35 million people living spread in the rural areas in southern China and on Taiwan, and for their distinctive dialect.
Ole Andersen
, 19 August 1999

Hakkas or Kheks (meaning Guests) are a dialect group from China... popularly believed to be descended from Northern Chinese who migrated to the South during the Hun invasions. Hakkas form a large minority of Overseas Chinese and can be found wherever Chinese are located. This association is an umbrella organisation of Hakka Clan associations in Malaysia. Even Sun Yat-Sen, the father of modern China was reputedly Hakka.
Robert L.S. Kee, 19 August 1999

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