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Yucatan (Mexico)

Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán

Last modified: 2019-12-14 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: mexico | yucatan | deer | henequen | maya | yucantan (republic of) | castas war | spaniard |
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De facto flag of Yucatan
De facto flag of Yucatan
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.


Presentation of Yucatan

  • Official name (Spanish): Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán
  • Official name (English): Free and Sovereign State of Yucatan
  • Short-form names: State of Yucatan; Yucatan
  • Location: State located in the same-name Peninsula in South-East of Mexico. It neighbors the Mexican States of Campeche (SW), and Quintana Roo (SE); and the Gulf of Mexico (N).
  • Area: 43 379 km2
  • Population: 2 102 259 inhabitants (2015)
  • Capital: Mérida (Pop.: 830 732 [2010])
  • Statehood: 3 October 1824
  • Arms adopted: 28 November 1989


De facto flag

De facto flag of Yucatan
De facto flag of Yucatan
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.

Coat of arms

Yucatan coat of arms
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.

The coat of arms consists of an "iberian" shield (round pointed with parallel sides and flat top), vert, a deer or leaping from the sinister over an unidentified charge on a mound, all under a sun placed in the sinister canton, all of the same; bordure or charged with two churches, sinister and dexter, and two castle towers, top and bottom, all or lined vert. Bellow the shield, a scroll with the isncription "YUCATÁN" in black capitals.
António Martins, 22 Jun 1999

Though the adoption of the new arms; at "Los Pinos", e.g. the President's residence, is still hoisted a white flag charged with the former arms.
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.

Historical flags of Yucatan

Popular and cultural flag of Yucatan
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.

"The most accurate version about the meaning of the five-star flag is that given by Historian Rodolfo Menéndez de la Peña, who wrote a brief introduction on the cover of the Serapio Baqueiro's book entitled 'Ensayo Histórico sobre las Revoluciones de Yucatán de 1840 a 1864' (Historic esay on the Yucatán revolutions from 1840 to 1864); the texts says: '...the Yucatán flag is divided into two fields: to the left, one field in green, and to the right, another divided in turn into three, red (top and bottom) and white (middle). The green area is featured by five beautiful stars standing for the five departments into wich Yucatán was administrativelly divided by Decree of November 30, 1840: Mérida, Izamal, Valladolid, Tekax and Campeche...' According the year on which the Peninsula was divided into five departments or districts, Writer José Antonio Adonay Cetina Sierra poits out another date in his work 'Apuntaciones para la Historia Legislativa del Municipio de Mérida' (Notes for the Legislative History of the Municipality of Mérida): 'It was then when Yucatán decreed on May 24, 1837 a new territorial division that reduced to five districts the then in effect colonial system; the town were distributed and in some cases the politic and administrative jurisdiction were enlarged: first district of Mérida, Department's capital; second district of Campeche; third district of Valladolid; fourth district of Izamal; and fifth district of Tekax'"

"Respecting the Yucatanense flag it was displayed by a short time at the Palace of the Government, according to Mr. Espejo, we count with the following information supplied by Writer Juan Francisco Molina Solís in his work "History of Yucatán" vol. 1; page 177: 'On night of March 16, 1841, during a meeting for the installation fo the Mérida Constitutional Council, the main room was invaded by an unarmed crowd, led by Barbachano, Francisco Martín Peraza and some others, asking for the full independence of Yucatán; then the Council under the crowd's presure agreed to review the proposal, (...) some of the most exitated people clang to the Palace's roof and after downining the Mexican flag hoisted that of Yucatan.' (...)"

"After six months (?) (it should be say -seven months-) and four days when the flag of Yucatán appeared, then October 20, 1841, the Congress of Yucatán proclaimed the Independence of the Peninusula from the Centralist Mexican Government, and starts to use the Peninsula flag as its symbol before the world nations, flying it at the merchant and military ships, as soon as the public buildings until December 15, 1843, when the Yucatanense government signs a Peace and Friendship Agreement with the Mexican counterpart, stating in the article 15 the following:

'Article 15: Yucatán shall not use any flag but that of the nation (...)'...".

From José Susano Durán Esquivel, "Las estrellas y la vigencia de la bandera de Yucatán" [The stars and the effect of the flag of Yucatan] in 160 aniversario de la Bandera de Yucatán
Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, July 21, 2001

The flag is divided in two fields. The hoist side bears, to my rough calculations (could only get an artistic rendition and photos with no regular sizes) a bit more than a third of the flag; this is a green field, with five white five-pointed stars, arranged 2-1-2 (from top to bottom). The fly is divided in three stripes: upper and lower in dark red, and a central and wider one in white. Again, the proportions might be worng, but that's more or less what the flag looks like. Today, it is extensively used by the Yucatan public, seen on t-shirts, stickers and bumperstickers, sport jackets and so on.
Guillermo Aveledo, 19 August 2000.

I have had exactly the same problems. It appears that, the flag of Yucatan is one of the most popular unofficial flags of Mexican states. I have visited all web sites refered here on this topic, and all show the same design with the wide variation refered by Guillermo:

  • The overall ratio varies from ~2:3 to ~1:3 or longer; I'd settle for 1:2.
  • The shades are mostely bright, though one variation shows indeed the dark red shade used by Guillermo. I'd stick to medium red, though.
  • The stars are mostely five-pointed, though at least one flag variation shows six-pointed stars. Five pointed would be the adequate choice for a "typical" Yucatan flag.
  • The fly side stripes are almost always equal sized, but at least one flag variation shows 1+2+1 (spanish style). Again, equal sized stripes would be the adequate choice.
  • The green area varies also a lot: I've seen it from smaller than 1/3rd to almost one half. What would be the average? 2/5ths, perhaps?

António Martins, 23 September 2000.

Flags like this were used by the PRI candite and his partisans for the government of Yucatán early this year. A variant is featured for bearing bigger up-ward stars on the green field, and equal-wide horizontal stripes.
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, 6 May 2001.

At present it is seen everywhere as part of a tourist campaign of the state government.
Carlos Magaña Lara, 13 December 2000.

The flag is flown by Yucatan young athletes during national sports events such as the National Olympics [Olimpiada Nacional].
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán May 10, 2014.

Former Yucatán flag
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, 13 January 2005.

Like most of the Mexican states, Yucatán first used as arms those granted to its capital city, e.g. Mérida: "A Spanish shield parted, the firts pale (left) azur charged by a castle in gold, and the second pale (right) a rampant lion in gold on sinople (green). The top is a royal crown. The ribbon bellow the shield bear the motto: "Muy noble y muy leal ciudad de Mérida".
From: Escudo de Armas de Mérida, Yucatán [Extenal link not available anymore!]
Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 06, 2001.

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