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Mexico - América mexicana (1813-1815/1821)

América Septentrional; Northern America; Insurgentes flag

Last modified: 2013-12-07 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: mexico | américa mexicana | américa septentrional | northern america | puruaran | erroneous | morelos (jose maria) | aury (louis michel) | mina (francisco xavier) |
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See also:

América mexicana flags and ensigns

The Hidalgo revolt was continued by the Generalisimo don José María Morelos y Pavón who due the persecution of the Spaniard Army in 1815 moved down to Puruarán (town of the current State of Michoacán), there he sumounned the Supreme Congress (declared in Chilpancingo on Nov. 6, 1813) and adopted three flags and a coat of arms by decrees of 3 and 14 July, 1815.

Though those were the first ever formally established flags, they last few time, Morelos would be shuted in Ecatepec, México, next December.

The Decree established tree flags:

1. National War flag and ensign.
2. White flag and ensign.
3. Flag and ensign of commerce.
4. National pennants.

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 09, 2001


War flag and ensign: the real "Insurgentes flag"
Bandera de guerra

[América mexicana war flag (adopted during the Puruarán Congress)] 1:2[Ratio aproximated]
[América mexicana war flag and ensign]
[flag and ensign no longer in use]
[Proposal flag and ensign]
Though a proposal, this flag was employed
by several "insurgentes" since 1815.
This is the, actually, the flag so called
"Bandera de los Insurgentes" (Insurgent's flag).
Click here to see the erroneous version.
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001

About the War flag and ensign the Puaruarán decree states:

"National flag at war. A checkered white sky-blue cloth whose longitude (hoist) and latitude (fly) be just like those used by the other nations. The arms (coat of arms) established and detailed as the Nation great seal according a same-date decree, with no amendments nor alterations, shall be placed inside a white oval on a silver field centering the cloth. Bordering all the cloth a red six-inches wide orle."

As I told you before this is the famous insurgentes flag recognized and saluted in New Orleans, USA with 19 cannon shots.
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001


    Variant of the War flag

    [América mexicana war flag variant] Variant of the war flag
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002

    According to Cárdenas de la Peña, in his book: Historia Marítima the flag above is shown as a possible variant:
    Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002

    Still in the 1810’ies, the insurrects used another flag, used in the merchant ships that sailed the coasts of the Gulf between Mexico and the USA. This flag, previous to the one of Iguala, of three colours white, blue and red, was saluted in North-America with 19 cannon shots.
    Jorge Candeias, 27 Oct 1997, translating from La Bandera Mexicana website


White flag and ensign
Bandera de parlamento

[América mexicana white flag and ensign adopted during the Puruarán Congress] 1:2[Ratio aproximated]
[América mexicana white flag and ensign]
[flag and ensign no longer in use]
[flag and ensign no longer in use]
It is unkonwn if this flag was actually used.
See: Aury's flag article in this same page.>
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001

The fourth paragraph of the Puruarán Decree describes the White flag and ensign as follows:

"White flag and ensign. A white cloth with the same measures of that mentioned above, bordered by a sky-blue six-inches wide orle, and an olive branch through a sword placed in the center of the flag and united at their intersection by a laurel crown (garland)."

Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino VilláscanMay 15, 2002.


Flag and ensign of commerce

[América mexicana flag of commerce adopted during the Puruarán Congress] 1:2[Ratio aproximated]
[América mexicana commerce flag and ensign]
[flag and ensign no longer in use]
[flag and ensign no longer in use]
It is unkonwn if this flag was actually used.
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001

Finally the decree promulgated on July 3 and 14, 1815, states about the Flag of commerce as follows:
"Flag of commerce. A sky-blue cloth with the correspondent measures bordered in white (six inches wide), centered by a white cross..."

Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino VilláscanMay 15, 2002.


National pennants
Gallardetes Nacionales

The decree also mention the national pennants features:
"...The pennats shall be in the same colors after the flags."

Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino VilláscanMay 15, 2002.

[América mexicana war pennant]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 15, 2002

[América mexicana White-flag pennant]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 15, 2002

[América mexicana commerce pennant]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 15, 2002


América mexicana Coat of arms

[Puruarán Congress coat of arms]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 09, 2001

The coat of arms would be defined on a decree promulgated on July 3, 1815 and decreed on July 14, same year in Puruarán, Michoacán.

"The Mexican Supreme Government to all who the present one reaches, know: that the Mexican Supreme Congress (...) recognizes as arms and Great Seal of the Republic of Mexico, the following ones:

In a silver shield an stand eagle with a snake in its peak perching on a fruitful nopal whose trunk rises from a lagoon. The shield shall be adorned with war trophies. In the top as a crest a laurel crown through of which is crossed by a scroll with the motto: Independencia Mexicana. Año de mil ochocientos diez (Mexican Independence. Year: 1810). This coat of arms shall be the Great Seal of the Nation, by means of which all decrees, laws, plenipotentiary powers, and the other diplomatic ministers, all kind of government offices, decrees sanctioned by the Supremo Tribunal de Justicia, and the passports for Mexican citizens abroad shall be sanctioned (...)"

Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino VilláscanMay 15, 2002.


Erroneous (nonexistent) insurgentes naval flag

[Erroneous (nonexistent) insurgentes naval flag]
by Jaume Ollé, 04 Aug 1995

For many years it has been beleaved that the famous insurgent flag (ensign) saluted in New Orelans with 19 cannon shots is that one divided into white-blue-red vertical stripes.
But it is a great mistake that is corrected righ now.

May be, this mistake is a Juan José Solis' work, who published in 1940 is his book "Historia de la Bandera, Himno, Escudo y Calendario Cívico Nacionales" such a flag. Let's recall he also pubished a flag of his own granted to the Trigarante Army. This is normal if we think that the sources at the time were not enough or bad. But let's say Solis, as military men, counted with all access as possible to official and particular archives and colections.

Why is this flag a mistake?, Why this flag ever never existed?

The answer is by Fr. Servando Teresa de Mier, the same who proposed a new flag when the Empire was overthrown and the Federal Republic established in 1823.

On April 12, 1823, Fr. Servando Teresa de Mier, as chief of the commission appointed to chose the coat of arms and flag, proposed to adopt white sky-blue checkered flag with the coat of arms in the middle, according to that used by the first insurgentes.
Fr. Servando inspired in that designed, argued the former flag was confused to other nations' flags.

"(...) The flag used by the self-called insurgentes was the same recognized in the United-States: the state of New Orleans recognized it. The US Congress was entered and it recognized it also. Thus, when we landed and hoisted such a flag, called insurgentes flag, they suluted us with 19 cannon shots. Then it is a recognized flag. We had 56 corsairs who used the same flag authorized to sail by Gen. Guadalupe Victoria. They (the corsairs) were respected over all America's seas and the flag recognized; thus we do not want changing it. (...) Then we have chose that one designed by the insurgentes (...)"

Mr. Muzquiz, another 1823 congresS man, said about the flag:

"That's the one; when I traveled, jointly with Mr. José Manuel Herrera to the United-States ordered by the government we established at that time that we were fighting for independence. We were in Louisiana and our flag was recognized, since all ships that hoisted it entered the US terriotory without no problems or taxes (...)"

So this vertical tricolor flag is a huge mistake.

Juan Manuel Gabino VilláscanMay 15, 2002.


 
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