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Royal Westphalian Military Colours 1808 - 1813 (Germany)

Königlich Westphälische Militärflaggen

Last modified: 2020-07-11 by klaus-michael schneider
Keywords: westphalen | eagle(golden) | cypher | crown | wreath | star(6-point) | diamond | saltire(white) |
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[Königreich Westphalen flag] 2:3 image by Jörg Majewski, 17 June 2020 See also:

Introduction

In 1808 the Westphalian Army consisted of Royal Infantry Guards and Cavalry Guards, altogether around 4000 soldiers, the Gendarmerie, one Artillery Regiment partially mounted, eight Line Infantry Regiments, four Light Infantry Battalions and six Line Cavalry Regiments. Neither Flags of the Artillery nor of the Light Infantry are reported in source.
The translations of the mottos on the colours is for the obverses "THE KING OF WESTPHALIA TO HIS...", followed by the name of the unit. For the reverses they are "VALOUR AND DISCIPLINE" for the inscriptions in French, which was changed to "VALOUR AND GOOD BEHAVIOUR" in German.
Source: German WIKIPEDIA
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020


Line Infantry Colours 1808 - 1813

Line Infantry Colours 1808 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1808 pattern reverse (3rd reg.1st bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
colour of 1st battalion of the 3rd regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1808 pattern reverse (3rd reg.1st bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
   

The colours were based on the French pattern of 1804, but dark blue around the white diamond. They were approx. 90 cm in square. On obverse and reverse there had been alternating golden cyphers displaying intertwined "JN" in script and golden Napoleonic eagles over a bundle of thunderbolts, both surrounded by a golden wreath with scroll. The obverse (see right image above) bore in golden initials the centred inscription divided into 5 lines as follows: "LE ROI / DE WESTPHALIE / AU Xte REGIMENT / D' INFANTERIE / DE LIGNE". The reverse (see left image above) had an inscription of the same type as follows: "VALEUR / ET DISCIPLINE / Yte. / BATAILLON". X is a regiment's number between 1 and 8, Y is a battalion's number either 1 or 2. There had been six regiments in 1808, each one having two battalions.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020

Line Infantry Colours 1810 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1810 pattern reverse (7th reg.1st bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020
colour of 1st battalion of the 7th regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1810 pattern reverse (7th reg.1st bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020
   

The colours were based on the French pattern of 1804, but dark blue around the white diamond and without embroidery. They were approx. 90 cm in square. On obverse and reverse there had been alternating golden 6-point stars and golden Napoleonic eagles over a bundle of thunderbolts, both surrounded by a golden wreath with scroll. The obverse (see right image above) bore in German Gothic letters the centred inscription divided into 6 lines as follows: "Der / König / von / Westphalen / Am Xte. Linien Infanterie / Regiment". The reverse (see left image above) had an inscription of the same type as follows: "Tapferkeit / Und / Gutes / Betragen / Yte. / Bat". X is a regiment's number between 1 and 9, Y is a battalion's number either 1,2 or 3.
There had been eight regiments in 1810, each one having two battalions. The 2nd and 7th regiment in 1811 raised a 3rd battalion. In 1812 the 9th regiment with two battalions was raised.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020

Line Infantry Colours 1813 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1813 pattern reverse (2nd reg.2nd bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020
colour of 2nd battalion of the 2nd regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia line infantry 1813 pattern reverse (2nd reg.2nd bat.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020
   

For the nine regiments new colours were issued in 1813 with minor differences to the 1810 pattern as follows: The embroidery on the edge of the diamond was omitted. Eagles and stars in the wreaths were replaced by the number of the regiment.
Nine regiments each having two battalions had these flags.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 17 June 2020


Infantry Guards Colours 1808 - 1813

The Grenadier-Guards and Rifle-Guards (German: Jäger Garden), one battalion each, received their flags on 1 July 1808. They had the same size and general design as those issued to the line regiments. All infantry guards flags had a white flag pole of approx. 170cm height with bronze spearhead-shaped finial.
All of the infantry guards received new flags in 1812, including the newly raised Fusilier-Guards. The new flags retained the old sizes but now the flag poles were painted in blue and white spirals.

Grenadier Guards Colours 1808 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1808 pattern reverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1808 pattern reverse (grenadiers)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
   

The inscriptions were different and the corner wreaths were of a slightly different pattern and were empty. The obverse bore in golden initials the centred inscription divided into 5 lines as follows: "LE ROI/DE WESTPHALIE/AU BATAILLON DE/GRENADIERS/GARDES" (see right image above). The reverse had an inscription of the same type as follows: "VALEUR / ET DISCIPLINE" (see left image above), as there had been just one battalion, there was no 3rd line.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020

Rifle Guards Colours 1808 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1808 pattern reverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1808 pattern obverse (rifles)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
   

Acc. to source for the rifles the 3rd line was "JÄGERS" instead, which is probably wrong, and should be "CHASSEURS". The reverse had an inscription of the same type as follows: "VALEUR/ET DISCIPLINE", as there had been just one battalion, there was no 3rd line.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020

Carabiniers d' Elite Colours 1811 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1811 pattern reverse (carabiniers)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1811 pattern obverse (carabiniers)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
   

On 19 May 1811 the Jäger-Carabinier-d'Elite received a standard of the line infantry 1810 pattern with different inscription in centred golden Gothic letters, on the obverse: "Der/König/von/Westphalen/dem Bataillon/Jäger-Carabiniers/d'Elite" , on the reverse "Tapferkeit/Und/Gutes/Betragen ".
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020

Infantry Guards Colours 1812 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1812 pattern reverse (fusiliers)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia infantry guards 1812 pattern obverse (fusiliers)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020
   

All of the infantry guards received new flags in 1812, including the newly raised Fusilier-Guards. The new flags retained the old sizes but now the flag poles were painted in blue and white spirals. The new pattern was dark blue parted by a white saltire with golden fringe. On the obverse was a golden Gothic inscription "Der König/von Westphalen/Dem Bataillon/ X Garde", where X is either "Füsilier", "Grenadier", "Jäger" or "Jäger Carabinier". On the reverse were on the centre of the saltire the middle arms of the kingdom, i.e. shield with orders and chains and topped by a royal crown. The blue fields on the obverse are charged with a golden Napoleonic Eagle, on the reverse by a golden cypher in serif letters, reading intertwined "NH", referring to Napoleon I and the King Jerome, the "H" probably representing "Hieronymus", the Latinised version of his name, which is also used in Germany.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 24 June 2020


Cavalry Colours 1808 - 1813

It is presumed that a cavalry regiment had four squadrons, as it had been in the Imperial French Army. It is not reported, whether the squadrons had proper flags, there are only reported regimental colours. According to Pendlebury the Westphalian cavalry regiments got four basic patterns of infantry standards from 1808, 1812, 1812 guards and 1813. The hussar received their own unique variant of the 1808 pattern. These standards were all 60 cm square, fringed and affixed to blue flag poles with bronze finials (guards) and white metal finials (line) shaped like a spearhead.
The only difference between the 1808 pattern and the 1812 pattern of line cavalry standards was the change from French to German inscriptions. Probably the 1808 pattern had also no embroidery on the edges of the diamond.
Since 1809 two Cuirassier Regiments and two Hussars Regiments alternately were based in Aschersleben of in action.
Source: German WIKIPEDIA
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Line Cavalry Colours 1812 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia line cavalry 1812 pattern reverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
colour of the 2nd regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia  line cavalry 1812 pattern obverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

The flags were dark blue parted by a broad white saltire and with golden fringes. The blue quarters were charged with golden Napoleonic Eagles. The obverse (see right image above) bore a centred golden Gothic inscription in the central part of the saltire: "Der König/von Westphalen/dem Xn Linien/Cavallerie/Regiment". X is the regiment's number between 1 and 6. The reverse (see left image above) displayed the royal arms with shield, golden crown and Order of the Crown of Westphalia with golden chain. The blue quarters were charged with golden cyphers reading "NH" in serifed letters.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Line Cavalry Colours 1813 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia line cavalry 1813 pattern reverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
colour of the 2nd regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia  line cavalry 1813 pattern obverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

It were (dark) blue-white vertical bicolours, i.e. the blue partition was at the hoist, with golden fringes. Obverse (see right image above) and reverse (see left image above) had golden centred inscriptions in Gothic letters on the obverse: "Der König/Von Westphalen/Dem Xn Linien Cavallerie/Regimentö. X is the regiment's number between 1 and 6. On the reverse the inscription was 'Tapferkeit/Und/Gutes/Betragen'.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Hussars Colours 1812 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia hussars 1812 pattern reverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
colour of the 2nd regiment
[Kingdom Westphalia hussars 1812 pattern obverse (2nd reg.)]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

The hussars got special flags in 1808, probably on the reverse with French inscriptions according to Terence Wise. In 1812 the inscriptions were replaced by Gothic letters in German.
The flags were blue with golden fringes parted by a broad white saltire. The obverse (see right image above) bore a golden inscription as follows: "Der König/von Westpahlen/dem Xn Husaren/Regiment". The blue quarters were charged with the royel cypher "HN" in serifed golden letters. On the reverse (see left image above) the blue quarters were charged with a golden Napoleonic eagle. In centre were the royal arms with shield, golden chain of the Order of the Crown of Westphalia, topped by a golden crown and superimposing two golden sceptres in saltire. Each corner was charged with a golden wreath, containing the number of the regiment and a golden grenade in the outer part of the corner. The quarters with the base of the sceptres had an additional 2nd grenade.
The 2nd Royal Westphalian Hussars Regiment was established already in 1807. It was somehow the successor of the remains of the 6th Prussian Cuirassier Regiment. But new soldiers were recruited among the local people. Interrupted by campaigns in Spain, Germany (1809) and Russia (1812) it was based in Aschersleben, alternately with the 1st Cuirassier Regiment. They fought, together with the Cuirassiers and the 1st Hussars among others at Borodino. After the campaign in Russia there had been just 40 survivors, who offered their service afterwards to the (Austrian) German Legion.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
3) German WIKIPEDIA
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Cavalry Guards Colours 1808 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia cavalry guards 1808 pattern reverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia cavalry guards 1808 pattern obverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

It was basically the 1810 infantry pattern. According to Terence Wise the inscription had been French in 1808 but was changed to German very quickly. All four wreaths had the cypher "JHN" in its centre. The inscription in the diamond on the obverse (see right image above) was centred in golden Gothic letters as follows: "Der König/von Westphalen/an seine/Leibgarde zu Pferde". The reverse (see left image above) displayed in the diamond the royal arms with shield, golden crown and Order of the Crown of Westphalia with golden chain.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Cavalry Guards Colours 1808 Pattern

[Kingdom Westphalia cavalry guards 1812 pattern reverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
[Kingdom Westphalia cavalry guards 1812 pattern obverse]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

It was basically the same like the 1812 line infantry pattern with two differences: The inscription on the obverse (see right image above) was "Der König/von Westphalen/an seine/Leibgarde zu Pferde". The arms were slightly different displaying the Order of the Crown of Westphalia fixed by a blue ribbon and the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour fixed by a red ribbon.
Sources:
1) Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
2) Alan Pendlebury's webpage
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

Light Cavalry Lancers Pennant

[Kingdom Westphalia light infantry lance pennant] image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020

It was a white swallow tail pennant with a dark blue lozenge at the hoist, touching the edges of the pennant. The lances were blue with white spirals. I couldn't find out, whether the Lancers were part of the line infantry or the guards. It was planned to raise them in 1812, but due to difficult circumstances they had never been in action.
Source: Knötel's Uniformenbuch
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020


Different Sizes of Infanty and Cavalry Colours

[infantry colour]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
[ cavalry colour]
1:1 image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020
   

The images show an infantry colour (see left image above) and a cavalry colour (see right image above) true to scale.
Source:
Terence Wise: "Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3)", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 115, pp.36-37
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 June 2020


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