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Cartagena State (1811-1814) (Colombia)

Last modified: 2021-08-26 by klaus-michael schneider
Keywords: bolivar | colombia | cartagena | nueva granada | barranquilla |
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Green-White Colours

image by António Martins-Tuválkin, 10 April 2016

image by António Martins-Tuválkin, 10 April 2016

image by Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

image by Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

All sources confirms that Cartagene used the colours green and white, but it is not known in which order. I will follow Restrepo Uribe who said that was green over white, but I have at least two quotations speaking about white and green colours. Most probably is that both forms were used. About in 1810 those colours were mainly used as cockarde, but also as banners, flags and bands. Of course proportions 2:3 (as I reconstructed the images) are unrealistic. Each flag used must be of different size, hand made. Same is for shade of green that must be from the fabric available. This colours were used only after 11 November 1811 and until at less January 1812.
Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

Both flag images redrawn from Jaume's originals, with optimized palettes, symmetry, no border, and standard color shades.
António Martins-Tuválkin, 10 April 2016

1812 Flag

by Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

by Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

On January 1812 Cartagena flag was adopted. Official Description is available, but accurate reconstruction is difficult. Following authors the flag can be reconstructed in differents ways. The flag deawn by Ricaurte and followed by Restrepo is the above. I believe that we should accept this reconstruction, but others were not discarded yet. Number of the Star's points and its exact form must be variable. Since the star is quoted as argent, some authors draw it as grey, but in the flags it should be white. If it was grey (or better argent), it was because that in 1812 those flags were manufactured with embrodoined decorations. The same flag later adopted provisionally by the Federal government of the United provinces (26 April 1814) and was reconstructed some years ago for to be adopted by Atlantic department before 1989. [See: Barranquilla]
According the Colombia constitution appendix the central star is white (but five pointed) but was manufactured and used with eighpointed star (white, but also yellow). Reconstruction with eighpointed star was made with intervention of some historians and must be accurate.
Why the 8 points stars? - Provinces of the spanish viceroyalty of the Kingdom of New Granada, were not eight in number. Excluding Venezuela general capitancy (which was ruled separately), the viceroyalty has two sections: the Audience of Santa Fe and the Presidency of Quito. Considering only Audiency of Santa Fe, then exists: Antioquia, Cartagena, Casanare, Citara, Mariquita, Neiva, Pamplona, Panama, Popayan, Riohacha, Santa Fe, Santa Marta, Socorro, Tunja and Veragua.  Rio Hacha, Popayan,Santa Marta, Panama and Veragua remained in hands of Spain, and in hands of independentist were 10 provinces, however not all at same time - they separated from Spain between 1810 and 1813. 15 other juntas were formed in several parts and some regions as separated entities (Nuevita, Mompox, Giron, Timana de Garzon, Cali...).
The Federal pact was signed 8 November 1811 by only five provinces (Antioquia, Cartagena, Pamplona, Neiva and Tunja) but later others adhered to the federal pact. Cundinamarca adhered, left, and afterwards was conquered by federals (led by Simon Bolivar). Socorro was recognized as part of Cundinamarca. Mariquita joined Cundinamarca (as other minor governments). Nuevita and Citara merged de facto (Choco). Concering other provinces, it is not clear if those were adhered to the federal pact. Cartagena considered Santa Marta under its jurisdiction and Mompox was conquered. Cauca Valley was established and the provicial capital, Popayan, was conquered several times, but reconquered by spanish from Pasto. At least 14 sovereign constitutions (one or more for each) are known or quoted by historist. We can suspect than, when Cartagena flag was adopted in january 1812, eight provinces joined already the federation, and Cartagena was then the leading one. I believe that the 8 states must have been the five founders and Cauca Valley confederated cities, Citara and Nuevita.  Federal congress was moved to Tunja and in 1812 a pact established the incorporation of Cundinamarca but didn't entered into full effect. Information lack concering the flags of Antioquia, Mompox, Neiva, Timana de Garzon, Pamplona, Casanare, Citara and Novita (I believe that no other states could have flags of its own and some of them probably didn't have one). Recents informations discovered that Antioquia adopted arms in 1812 (published in Flag Report), but not mention of flag in the documents found in the archives.
Jaume Olle, 15 September 2001

While reading Herbert Asbury's "The Gangs of New Orleans" a reissue of his 1936 "The French Quarter: An Informal History of the New Orleans Underworld" (Renamed to latch on to the same author's "Gangs of New York) I came across the following passage: "After piracy in the grand manner came to an end...the commerce of the Gulf continued to be plundered, under the flimsy guise of legality, by the privateers.... Within a few years after the turn of the nineteenth century the Gulf of Mexico fairly swarmed with piratical craft, most of which operated safely within the international law by flying the flag of the Republic of Cartagena"
prometevsberg, 13 March 2004

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