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Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (Angola)
(National Front for the Liberation of Angola)
Last modified: 2020-01-04 by bruce berry
Keywords: angola | fnla |
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by Stuart Notholt, 10 Jan 1996
Frente Nacional para a Libertação de Angola
Led by Holden Roberto, the FNLA evolved from the Uniao das Populacoes do
Norte de Angola, which was formed in 1957 and, as the title suggests, was
predominantly a northern based party with an ethnic base among the Bakongo
people. In 1961 the FNLA mounted the first serious challenge to
Portuguese rule in Angola. It received support from Zaïre, the
During the final stages of the war against the Portuguese (and the
in 1975, the FNLA formed a shaky alliance with UNITA,
announcing the formation of the Democratic Republic of Angola. Attacking
Luanda from the north, the FNLA were defeated and never recovered. Elements
of the FNLA were eventually absorbed into UNITA. Refugees from the FNLA
also formed the basis of the South African Special Forces 32
which operated in Namibia and southern Angola. Holden Roberto returned
to the country from exile in August 1991 and said the FNLA should be accorded
parity with the MPLA and UNITA in the multi-party talks then in progress.
This suggestion was ignored.
The FNLA flag had a red stripe running from
bottom left to top right. On this was a white star. The upper triangle
so formed was white, the lower yellow. Beyond a vague adherence to the
pan-African colours, I do not have any information on the symbolism of
this flag. There is also a vague similarity to the flag of the Congo (Zaïre)
and Cabinda, which, given
the ethnic and political links between the FNLA and southern Zaïre
may be more than coincidental.
Stuart Notholt,10 Jan 1996
Going through the flags of Angola, I could not help but notice the likeness
of the FNLA and the Musikongo (claimed state):
same colors and a star (although different design). This is not surprising
given that both entities are related to the Bakongo ethnic group, as is
pointed out in the respective FOTW pages
Antonio Teixeira, 25 Jan 2002
FNLA - variant
by Jorge Candeias, 28 Nov 2001
FNLA (Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola, or National
Front for the Liberation of Angola) comes fourth in the present Angolan
Parliament with its 5 MPs. The flag is well-known, but in the
site of the Angolan Parliament it's a little different from usual.
Besides the diagonal tricolour of White, Red and Yellow with a white star in the center, there's
also the initials F.N.L.A. in the canton and what looks like a motto, "LIBERDADE
E TERRA" (freedom and land), in the yellow stripe, bent with the same inclination
of the red stripe. Both writings are in black, and this flag design is confirmed
elsewhere in the site through a photo of one of the parties' MPs.
Jorge Candeias, 28 Nov 2001
image sent by Jason Saber, 04 Sept 2019
This image was shown on the MPLA Facebook page as being the flag it used in 1961
Jason Saber, 04 Sept 2019
The MPLA was created in December 1956 with a flag of horizontal blue, red and black
stripes with a yellow stylized sun on the red stripe. At a
conference in Tunis in January 1960, the MPLA and UPA (Uniao dos Povos
d'Angola - United Peoples of Angola) merged to create the FNLA, and operated
under a single "national" flag as Angola Livre, where the triangles symbolize
the two movements becoming united and the yellow sun meaning independence and
the red is the blood shed in the struggle for independence.
In 1963, the old MPLA separated from FNLA and at the Congress of Conakry in
January 1964, the MPLA adopted the flag which is in still
in use (red over black, with a yellow star in the center).
Jaume Olle, 09 Sept 2019
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